Radioactive isotopes in dating

For example, in the North Sea, fixed nucleonic gauges are sometimes deployed to determine conditions within separator vessels and to monitor residual oil content within separated gas streams.Nucleonic gauges are also used in the coal industry.The ability to use radioisotopes to accurately measure thickness is widely used in the production of sheet materials, including metal, textiles, paper, plastics, and others.Density gauges are used where automatic control of a liquid, powder, or solid is important, for example as in detergent manufacture.A machine called a 'pipe crawler' carries a shielded radioactive source down the inside of the pipe to the position of the weld.There, the radioactive source is remotely exposed and a radiographic image of the weld is produced on the film.X-ray sets can be used when electric power is available and the object to be scanned can be taken to the X-ray source and radiographed.

Gamma radiography has found use outside of core industrial applications, with the technique successfully employed following the devastating earthquake in Nepal in April 2015.

Radioisotopes are used by manufacturers as tracers to monitor fluid flow and filtration, detect leaks, and gauge engine wear and corrosion of process equipment.

Small concentrations of short-lived isotopes can be detected whilst no residues remain in the environment.

By adding small amounts of radioactive substances to materials used in various processes it is possible to study the mixing and flow rates of a wide range of materials, including liquids, powders, and gases and to locate leaks.

Radiotracers are used widely in industry to investigate processes and highlight the causes of inefficiency.They measure the amount of radiation from a source which has been absorbed in materials.

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