Over time through emulation of the behavior of fauna a medicinal knowledge base developed and passed between generations.
As tribal culture specialized specific castes, shamans and apothecaries fulfilled the role of healer.
The Atharvaveda also contain prescriptions of herbs for various ailments.
Apart from learning these, the student of Āyurveda was expected to know ten arts that were indispensable in the preparation and application of his medicines: distillation, operative skills, cooking, horticulture, metallurgy, sugar manufacture, pharmacy, analysis and separation of minerals, compounding of metals, and preparation of alkalis.
The teaching of various subjects was done during the instruction of relevant clinical subjects.
Also, the earliest known woman physician, Peseshet, practiced in Ancient Egypt at the time of the 4th dynasty.
Her title was "Lady Overseer of the Lady Physicians." In addition to her supervisory role, Peseshet trained midwives at an ancient Egyptian medical school in Sais.
Along with the Egyptians, the Babylonians introduced the practice of diagnosis, prognosis, physical examination, and remedies.